In a recent discussion a reader mentioned this paper that somehow I have missed:
María Cerezo et al., New Insights into the Lake Chad Basin Population Structure Revealed by High-Throughput Genotyping of Mitochondrial DNA Coding SNPs. PLoS ONE. Open access.
The paper has more data but I’d say that the essence of it is in figures 1 and 2:
|Fig. 1 Map of the Lake Chad Basin showing frequencies of the main African hgs in the different ethnic groups analyzed.|
What I most clearly notice in this map is that L2 is dominant North of Lake Chad, while L3 is hegemonic elsewhere in the basin.
Figure 2 (not displayed because it needs high resolution for clear contemplation) is the phylogeny and commonality of the specific lineages under the wide categories shown above. Most common lineages are:
- L0a (almost all the L0 displayed above is this sublineage). Excepting historically slave-trader nations (Arabs, Kanuri, Kanembu) it is most common south of the Lake, in North Cameroon.
- L1b is most common among the Fulani (20-26%) being very rare in other ethnicities, except the Fali and the Kanembu.
- L1c (usually associated with Pygmies but not exclusively) is found most commonly among the Hide (15%).
- L2a makes up most of the L2 above, being quite common among all ethnicities (but more in the North, as mentioned for L2 overall, reaching its highest figure among Chad Arabs: 33%).
- L2b is most common among the Mafa (11%) and Fulani (8%).
- L2c is most common among the Tcheboua Fulani specifically (10%)
- L3b is most common among the Fulani (28-30%) but also among many other ethnicities.
- L3d is frequent among several groups but rare among others without any pattern I can discern. The highest frequency is that of Chad Arabs (19%).
- L3h is quite frequent (>20%) among the peoples that live at the very shores of the lake (but the Northern ones), being most common among the Kotoko (29%).
- L3e reaches high frequencies among diverse peoples, with a peak among the Fali (38%).
- M1 is most common among the fishermen Buduma (10%) and also the Shuwa Arabs (13%).
- U only reaches noticeable frequencies among the Borgor Fulani (8% U(xU6)) and Shuwa Arabs (5% U(xU6), 3% U6).
- R0 is quite common among Chad Arabs (18.5%, all R0(xHV), surely R0a). There is some HV(xH) and H scatter but at very low frequencies.