It has lots of mtDNA H, of course, as does that of Portugal (both Epipaleolithic and Neolithic), approaching modern apportions.
The necropolis of Paternabidea is dated to c. 6.090-5.960 ± 40 years BP. This is an uncalibrated C14 date, I understand, what should translate as c. 7000 real years ago or c. 5000 years BCE after due calibration, being one of the oldest Neolithic sites in the area (see this previous post for the regional Neolithic chronology).
Addendum: I think this is the right place to post this map that Argiedude sent me with the modern apportions of mtDNA haplogroup H1:
This map seems to suggest a negative cline of this lineage from the sources of the Neolithic phenomenon in SE Europe and West Asia, a possible sign of having suffered some displacement by the newcomers. H3 is instead restricted to SW Europe.
For further info in mtDNA H past and present distribution see this entry at my old blog Leherensuge.
Update: Catalan and Aragonese Neolithic mtDNA
A complementary study on Catalan ancient mtDNA has been published these days, however under a paywall:
C. Gamba et al., Ancient DNA from an Early Neolithic Iberian population supports a pioneer colonization by first farmers. Molecular Ecology 2011. Pay per view.
This are the results:
|click to see larger (and legible)|
The information obtained from the HVRI sequence (table 4) together with the result of typing different diagnostic coding SNPs allows us to classify each Neolithic sample into its corresponding mitochondrial DNA haplogroup in the well-known mtDNA phylogeny.
X1 and K are likely to be Neolithic. N* is a mystery but unlikely to be Neolithic in principle. All the rest (H and U5) are likely to be pre-Neolithic.
It is notable that the most modern and also likely pre-Neolithic sequence is found in the Aragonese cave of Chaves (67% H, 33%K), farther from the Mediterranean Sea and the Ebro river, towards the Central Pyrenees.
Update on Gamba’s paper (Dec. 8th):
Argiedude (who remains without access to Google) wrote to me and clarified the following:
- The reported X1 is X(xX2) in fact according to the published data (could be X1 but also X3, X4 or X*). However X3 used to be known as X1b until a few months ago, while X4 and X* are extremely rare.
- H20a, which is actually the reported “H20” lineage is almost only found in Europe (notably Iberia). The sources are diverse but he lists: 5 from Spain (including one Canarian but no Moroccans), 2 Hispanics and no Portuguese/Brazilian. In addition he mentions some Sephardi Jews, while Mitosearch lists: 1 Greek, 1 Bavarian, 1 Sicilian, 2 Mexican, 2 Spanish. The oldest source on H20* and H20a being located in West Asia and Europe respectively is Richards 2000.
Update: a Paleolithic Basque mtDNA U5b1 from Aizpea?
Jean Lohizun also pointed me to this other ppv paper on immune polymorphisms. What is notable is that the free supplemental material, lists several mtDNA HVS-I sequences, most of which are from San Juan Ante Porta Latinam (a Chalcolithic Ebro river site already documented for mtDNA) but one is from Aizpea, an ill-known Epipaleolithic site from west-central Navarre. For this site they provide the following sequence: 051-093-189-192-270 (+16,000), which seems to lead to U5b1a’b’c following the latest PhyloTree build. But if you have a second opinion (two markers are missing), I’ll be glad to read it.