|Fig. 1 – PC analysis, color-coded for languages|
|Fig. 3 – click to expand
Red: East Asian, Orange and Yellow: SE Asian, Blue: North Asian, Purple: Native American
See original for full legend
- R9c1 (the sibling of F) is most common in Philippines (3.3–5.7%) and Abor (11%). Frequencies decay as we move northwards.
- F2 is most common in Thailand (2.4–5.4%) and then in China (1.9–3.3%). The Bargut singleton branch is apparently a new clade (F2e proposed)
- N9a is most common in Japan (4.6%), Korea (3.9%), China (2.8%) and Mongolia (2.1%), with less important presence in Island SE Asia and Eastern Europe.
- M10 is a rare East Asian clade with very rare cases in East Europe.
- M11 is also a rare East Asian clade found from Altai to Japan.
- M13 has two branches, one (M13a) most diverse in Tibet (and often found in East Asia) while the other one (M13b) is restricted to Malaysian aboriginal peoples.
- M9 also has two branches: E is found essentially in Island SE Asia and Taiwan aborigines, while M9a’b is apparently also centered in Tibet and scattered through East Asia and Hymalayan parts of South Asia. They propose that M9a1a1 spread to North Asia from South China after the LGM (note: I do not necessarily subscribe this age estimate).
Update (May 23):
In order to illustrate the discussion (see comments) I made this map of the “Evenk cluster” which I suspect was first Evenk-speaker or otherwise ethnically homogeneous before the Turkic expansion (since less than 2000 years ago):
The most notable feature is that it seems to be more northernly or oriented to Central Siberia than the other populations. It’s a Siberian-Taiga specific cluster, while most of the other Altaic populations are steppe dwellers instead. Compare with this map of the taiga:
They overlap very well, right?