Cham people are the major Austronesian speakers of Mainland Southeast
Asia (MSEA) and the reconstruction of the Cham population history can
provide insights into their diffusion. In this study, we analyzed
non-recombining region of the Y chromosome markers of 177 unrelated
males from four populations in MSEA, including 59 Cham, 76 Kinh, 25 Lao,
and 17 Thai individuals. Incorporating published data from
mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), our results indicated that, in general, the
Chams are an indigenous Southeast Asian population. The origin of the
Cham people involves the genetic admixture of the Austronesian
immigrants from Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) with the local populations
in MSEA. Discordance between the overall patterns of Y chromosome and
mtDNA in the Chams is evidenced by the presence of some Y chromosome
lineages that prevail in South Asians. Our results suggest that
male-mediated dispersals via the spread of religions and business trade
might play an important role in shaping the patrilineal gene pool of the
|Fig. 5 (click for the original)|
- P(xO) is all actually R and better observed in fig. 6, where it becomes obvious that it’s all linked to South Asia (R1a1a and R2a).
- C is mostly C3-P217 but there is also one individual with C* (C2?). It seems mostly related to Mainland SE Asia (MSEA) rather than ISEA, as seems logical for a lineage with the greatest concentration in far NE Asia. The C* single case is probably of Austronesian origin.
- F(xK) is found in two Cham individuals and some others. One of them is H, which is surely also of “recent” arrival from South Asia (Hindu and Muslim religion, trade).
- K(xNO,P) is found in 10% of the surveyed Cham men. It may have arrived from ISEA and most is concentrated in a single haplotype among the Cham (further reinforcing the idea of a possible Austronesian founder effect).
- O* (P191): found in one Cham and obviously from MSEA
- O1a (M119): found in 3 Cham and I’d say that related to South China (2) and MSEA (1).
- O2a1* (M95): this paragroup is way too common in MSEA for all branches to have anything to do with Austronesians (Cham: 30.5%, what is a major component)
- O2a1a (M88): this lineage is not found at all in ISEA but only MSEA and South China (Cham 8.5%).
- O3a* (P200): the Cham individuals are clearly haplotypes as their MSEA neighbors (Cham: 6.8%).
- O3a2b (M7): it also looks very much MSEA (Cham: 5.1%)
- O3a2c1 (M134): a single Cham man sits on a branch derived from South China.
- MSEA & South China: 67.9% (all O and C3)
- ISEA (likely Austronesian): 13.6% (K*, C* and F*)
- Taiwan & Philippines (core Austronesian): nothing at all
- South Asia (Hindu/Muslim historical networks): 18.7% (R, H)
|Fig. 3 – Principal Component analysis based on Y-DNA haplogroups|
|Fig. 7 – haplogroup apportions in two populations from Vietnam|
M71, M72, M73, and M77; N* includes N21 and N23; R* includes R22 and R23. I had not noticed this before (h/t Terry).