Paleoanthropologist John Hawks mentions today in his blog that he and colleagues have found that the famous Neolithic mummy Ötzi’s genome is much more Neanderthal than modern day Europeans and Asians. Almost double in fact:
So if the average modern European is (est.) 2.4% Neanderthal, Ötzi could well be some 4.5-4.8%. What is less clear is whether this means a Paleolithic residue of excess Neandethal blood or a Neolithic arrival of excess Neanderthal blood from West Asia, if this can be extrapolated to all Europe or some wider region or was instead restricted to Italy (which stood apart from the main late Upper Paleolithic currents) or even a peculiarity of Ötzi’s ethnic group (La Lagozza culture, part of the wider Cardium-Pottery cultural phenomenon).
In December I detected anomalous high FST distances in an autosomal component of some Alpine populations, specifically a component important in the 1000 Genomes’ Slovene sample (22%) but not in any other West Eurasian population I could observe (values of <2%). As I said back in the day, it may be some sort of error, but I wouldn’t mind if the matter was further researched. If not an error, it could be a residual component from the “Out of Africa” period, judging from the FST value. Take all this with lots of salt, of course, just trying to explore possible explanations.