Genetics does not necessarily correlate with linguistic families. It often does not. This seems to be the case with Native Americans as well.
Lutz Roewer et al., Continent-Wide Decoupling of Y-Chromosomal Genetic Variation from Language and Geography in Native South Americans. PLoS Genetics 2013. Open access → LINK [doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003460]
AbstractNumerous studies of human populations in Europe and Asia have revealed a concordance between their extant genetic structure and the prevailing regional pattern of geography and language. For native South Americans, however, such evidence has been lacking so far. Therefore, we examined the relationship between Y-chromosomal genotype on the one hand, and male geographic origin and linguistic affiliation on the other, in the largest study of South American natives to date in terms of sampled individuals and populations. A total of 1,011 individuals, representing 50 tribal populations from 81 settlements, were genotyped for up to 17 short tandem repeat (STR) markers and 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs), the latter resolving phylogenetic lineages Q and C. Virtually no structure became apparent for the extant Y-chromosomal genetic variation of South American males that could sensibly be related to their inter-tribal geographic and linguistic relationships. This continent-wide decoupling is consistent with a rapid peopling of the continent followed by long periods of isolation in small groups. Furthermore, for the first time, we identified a distinct geographical cluster of Y-SNP lineages C-M217 (C3*) in South America. Such haplotypes are virtually absent from North and Central America, but occur at high frequency in Asia. Together with the locally confined Y-STR autocorrelation observed in our study as a whole, the available data therefore suggest a late introduction of C3* into South America no more than 6,000 years ago, perhaps via coastal or trans-Pacific routes. Extensive simulations revealed that the observed lack of haplogroup C3* among extant North and Central American natives is only compatible with low levels of migration between the ancestor populations of C3* carriers and non-carriers. In summary, our data highlight the fact that a pronounced correlation between genetic and geographic/cultural structure can only be expected under very specific conditions, most of which are likely not to have been met by the ancestors of native South Americans.
There’s only so much to say about language families and patrilineages: that they do not agree in any obvious way:
|Table 1. Correlation between Y-SNP haplogroup and language class.|
However the paper also address the interesting matter of NE Asian and Native American paragroup C3(xC3b), which is almost only found among Ecuadorean Natives (Kichwa and Waorani speakers). The only other known case among Native Americans, according to the authors, is an individual of Southern Alaskan native ancestry.
Overall distribution of Y-DNA C3* (yellow), which I understand to mean C3(xC3b) for this study:
|Figure 4. Prevalence of Y-SNP haplogroup C-M217 (C3*) around the Pacific Ocean.
Light blue: previous studies; dark blue: present study; yellow: relative frequency of C-M217 (C3*) carriers.
The most interesting information anyhow may be in the haplotype network:
The network clearly shows that the Native American C3* haplotypes are mostly or totally related to a cluster of Altaian, Mongol and Chinese roots. The Altaian connection is particularly strong for all but one of the lineages. This is very much concordant with a proto-Amerind patrilineal origin in Altai (where NE Asian and American Y-DNA Q and mtDNA X2 variants surely originated in the early Upper Paleolithic) which traveled to Beringia via Mongolia or nearby regions, spreading the mode 4 (blade tech) to East Asia c. 30,000 years ago.
This is not the view of the authors but mine. The authors instead speculate with (i) a late wave or (ii) even naval contact between East Asia and South America. I find both hypothesis lacking merit and I lean for a founder effect model instead.
On the other hand, the C3b presence in NW North America, critically among Na-Dene speakers, may still represent a second wave: that of Na-Dene speakers, whose “recent” linguistic connections to Siberia (Yenisean family) have found strong support in the last years.