|Lapita pot from Tonga (source)|
Monthly Archives: February 2013
For more than 40 y, there has been an active discussion over the presence and economic importance of maize (Zea mays) during the Late Archaic period (3000–1800 B.C.) in ancient Peru. The evidence for Late Archaic maize has been limited, leading to the interpretation that it was present but used primarily for ceremonial purposes. Archaeological testing at a number of sites in the Norte Chico region of the north central coast provides a broad range of empirical data on the production, processing, and consumption of maize. New data drawn from coprolites, pollen records, and stone tool residues, combined with 126 radiocarbon dates, demonstrate that maize was widely grown, intensively processed, and constituted a primary component of the diet throughout the period from 3000 to 1800 B.C.
760 officially recognized scripts on ceramics from Iruña-Veleia excavated by the archaeology firm Lurmen S.L. (approximately between years 2002-2008)have been analyzed. A number of these ceramics contains scripts which may be assimilated to Iberian/Tartessian writings. This number may be underestimated since more studies need to be done in already available and new found ceramics. This is the second time that Iberian writing is found by us in an unexpected location together with the Iberian-Guanche inscriptions of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands). On the other hand, naviform scripting, usually associated to Iberian rock or stone engraving may have also been found in Veleia. Strict separation, other than in time and space stratification, between Iberian and (South) Tartessian culture and script is doubted.
- HV/H[R-CRS]: 28.8% (17.9-34.2%)
- HV0/HV0a/V: 6.7% (4.6-8.3%)
- R0a: 0.8% (0.8-3.2%)
- U3*: 3.2% (1.1-3.2%)
- U6a[U6a*]: 1.9% (1.9-7.8%)
- U6a1’2’3: 9.4% (2.6-9.4%)
- K*: 1.6% (0.7-4.8%)
- T1a: 3.5% (0.0-5.6%)
- T2b*: 1.9% (0.0-2.2%)
- J[*]/J1c/J2[*]: 3.8% (1.3-3.8%)
- M1[*]: 7.3% (0.7-7.3%)
- L3b[*]: 0.3% (0.3-2.8%)
- L3b1a3: 1.3% (0.0-2.8%)
- L3e5: 1.6% (0.0-2.9%)
- L2*: 0.5% (0.0-4.1%)
- L2a[*]: 0.8% (0.0-3.2%)
- L2a1*: 1.3% (0.7-4.8%)
- L2a1b: 1.3% (0.8-3.5%)
- L2d: 0.0% (0.0-2.8%)
- L1b*: 3.0% (2.7%-9.0%)
- E1a (M33): 0.6% (0.0-5.3%)
- E1b1[*] (P2): 5.2% (0.7-38.6%)
- E1b1b1[*] (M35): 0.6% (0.0-4.2%)
- E1b1b1a4 (V65): 1.9% (0.0-4.8%)
- E1b1b1b (M81): 44.2% (44.2-67.4%)
- E1b1b1c (M123): 1.3% (0.0-11.1%)
- F[*] (M89): 3.9% (0.0-3.9%)
- J1 (M267): 21.8% (0.0-21.8%)
- J2a2 (M67): 3.9% (0.0-3.9%)
- R1b1a (V88): 2.6% (0.9-6.9%)
- R1b1b1a1b[*] (U198): 2.6% (0.0-2.6%)
- R1b1b1a1b1 (U152): 2.6% (0.0-2.6%)
|Table 2. Geographic components (%) considered in Y-chromosome and mtDNA lineages.|
|Figure 2. Graphical relationships among the studied populations.
PCA plots based on mtDNA (a) and Y-chromosome (b) polymorphism. Codes are as in Supplementary Tables S2 and S6.
- And in general category: North Africa
|Drawing of two ivory stoppers from Combe-Capelle and Fourneau du Diable
(from Don’s Maps, ultimately from S. Lwoff 1968)
|Stopper of bone
“Particularly important are the graves that shed new light on the funerary ritual at the end of the Bronze Age in north-eastern Banat. It was found that the dead were deposited on a pyre where items from the funerary trousseau were also burned.” This included “a table-altar of clay on which they brought funerary offerings, stone grinders and various pots that were used for the funeral banquet. Modern methods of radioactive carbon dating method shows that the necropolis at Păru dates between 1300 and 1200 BC” Ph.D. Florin Drasovean told www.tion.ro.
“In terms of inventory, there were discovered pots that were used in the funeral banquet and various fragments of altars, on which the deceased was cremated. Subsequently, the funeral was done in circular pits of 1 meter diameter, grouped in nests, probably because individuals came from the same family,” explained Professor Drasovean.
|Part of the excavated necropolis|
also found further West, where it is most strongly associated to the Urnfield culture (as well as others more or less related ones), later, in the Iron Age, cremation is also associated to stone circle burials in Scandinavia and the Pyrenees. Therefore one could fathom that the transition between the Bronze and Iron Age in Europe North and West of the Balcans could well be described also as the Age of Cremation, even if (of course), there are also many areas where such practice never caught up.