|Fig. 1 – click to expand|
Category Archives: Central Asia
He claims to have found ‘numerous ancient solar and lunar observatories around Sunduki’.
‘This square pattern of stones on the ground shows you the place’, he
told visiting author Kira Van Deusen. ‘I knew there would be an
orientation point, but we had to search through the grass for a long
time to find it.
‘Now look up to the top of that ridge. You see a place where there is
a crack between the rocks? If you were here on the summer solstice, you
would see the sun rise right there. Or you would if you were here 2,000
years so. Now the timing is slightly differen’.
High on one cliff wall is a rock engraving showing dragon heads in one direction, and snake heads in the other.
‘If the sun were shining, we could tell the time,’ he said. ‘In the
morning the shadow moves along the snake’s body from his head to his
tail, and in the afternoon it comes from the other direction along the
‘From the same observation point you can determine true north and south by sighting along the mountains’.
- Some of them are decorated with aquatic animals.
- 150×200 m. mound in Birjakhedi
- Terracotta game pieces
- Pottery (incl. jars, pots, dishes)
- Stone and ivory beads
Giza pyramid construction’s logistics revealed → Live Science.
Caesar beat the Gauls.Was there not even a cook in his army?Bertolt Brecht (A Worker reads History)
Late Indus Valley Civilization was overcome by violence → National Geographic.
|Harappa (CC by Shephali11011)|
The skull of a child between four and six years old was
cracked and crushed by blows from a club-like weapon. An adult woman was
beaten so badly—with extreme force, according to researchers—that her
skull caved in. A middle-aged man had a broken nose as well as damage
to his forehead inflicted by a sharp-edged, heavy implement.
Of the 18 skulls examined from this time period, nearly half showed serious injuries from violence …
Gaming pieces of Melton Mowbray (England) → Science Daily.
|(CC by P.A. Salguero Quiles)|
Tocharian mummy buried with marijuana hoard → Paleorama[es].
|Ukok Plateau landscape
(CC by Kobsev)
A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a ‘contact zone’ between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.
- Eastern haplogroups: 8 (50%)
- A: 1
- C: 2
- D: 4
- G2a: 1
- Western haplogroups: 8 (50%)
- HV6: 1
- J: 1
- K: 3
- U5a1: 2
- T1: 1
The Pazyryk groups analysed so far appear to be genetically homogeneous
and they did not present significant genetic differences to current
Altaians. These results suggest that roots of the current genetic
diversity and admixture of the Altai region in Central Asia could be
traced back to the Iron Age.
Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan’s location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan’s history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia.
|Fig. 1 – PCA derived from Y-chromosomal haplogroup frequencies|
- Hazara (n=60): 20 C3 (33%), 10 J2a* (17%), 6 J2a5 (10%), 4 R1a1a (7%), 3 B (5%), 3 E1b1b1c1 (5%),
- Tajik (n=56): 17 R1a1a (30%) 9 J2a (14%), 5 O (9%), 3 H1a (5%)
- Pashtun (n=49): 25 R1a1a (51%), 9 Q (18%), 6 L1c (12%), 3 G2c(6%)
- Uzbek (n=17): 7 C3 (41%), 3 R1a1a (18%), 2 R1b1a2 (12%)
- Baluch (n=13): 8 L1a (61%), 2 R2a (15%)
- Norestani (n=5): 3 R1a1a, 1 R2a, 1 J2a*
- Arab (n=3): 2 L1a, 1 R2a
- Turkmen (n=1): 1 R1a1a
|The Hazara Country (source) is the center of Afghanistan|
- Altay Kazakhs are higher in C(xC3c) (24%) and lower in C3c (39%) than other Kazakhs.
- They are also higher in O3 (26%)
- They are also higher in G and J (9%) altogether
|Fig. 4 PCA (Y-DNA) of Central Asian and Mongol populations|
|Fig. 1 Kazakh populations sampled (5: this paper, * sample localities)|
|Population density in Central Asia (for reference)|